POSSIBILITIES FOR GROUNDWATER DEVELOPMENT FOR THE CITY OF JAKARTA, INDONESIA
Groundwater resources for the water supply of the city of Jakarta are limited with respect to quantity and quality. In response to the present overexploitation of the deeper parts of the aquifer system, piezometric heads regionally have dropped below sea level. Sea-water intrusion and land subsidence have been recorded as a consequence of the drop in head in the northern and central city districts. Shallow groundwater is exposed to many sources of contamination. On the basis of recent hydrogeological investigations and available data on groundwater exploitation in Jakarta, a three-dimensional numerical groundwater model was developed to simulate the present situation and the possible future development of the groundwater resources in the area. It is forecast that the present abstraction of 47 min m /year from the deep aquifer system can be maintained and that the velocity of sea-water encroachment can be reduced if the present centres of abstraction are shifted away from the coast and further inland to the south.